How not to get pregnant?

How not to get pregnant?

When is it necessary to protect yourself?

A woman can get pregnant at puberty. The appearance of menstruation in women is the sign of the beginning of the fertile period. Even if her menstrual cycles are not regular at the start, women can get pregnant at any time.

Do I have to protect myself even if there has been no penetration?

Yes. Although this is rare, sperm may have been deposited at the entrance of the vagina and back up into the cervix. They are sometimes also present in what is called seminal fluid: liquid that moistens the penis throughout the sexual act.

How do you know which contraceptive method to choose?

It is normal not to know which contraceptive method to use.

1) First you have to know yourself

Above all, it is necessary to know yourself. If you are very upside-down and need to be reminded, it will be dangerous to take a pill every night at the same time. Similarly, if you travel a lot with jetlag, you may well forget your contraception.

2) Do according to your lifestyle

If you are a smoker, some birth control pills will be eliminated. Sports fanatics or athletes will sometimes have an interest in benefiting from the advantages of the implant or other contraceptives that allow menstruation to stop.

3) Do according to your body

Sometimes some pills can cause a lack of libido, vaginal dryness or even increased pre-menstrual syndromes, so it is important to listen to your body and your doctor in order to find another method of contraception that will be more suitable for us.

Do I have to talk about it with my parents

Finding out from your parents about the different methods of contraception is a responsible act and there is nothing to be ashamed of. It is important for parents to see that their child is aware of and interested in his health and the health of his partner.

However, it is not necessarily mandatory to keep parents informed. There are centers called "family planning" where consultations with professionals are free and contraception is given.

What are the different methods of contraception

The contraceptive pill

The pills are small tablets to be taken every day, throughout its cycle - some stop during menstruation, others do not - and are used to block ovulation (resting of the ovaries) as well as control of the brain on the ovaries, the sperm go up into the uterus (cervical mucus) and "lock" the endometrium which prevents implantation.

There are 2 kinds of pills:

  • the progestin-only pill
  • the micropill

The advantages: the pill allows in addition to contraception to regularize an uncontrolled cycle, for some people: to reduce acne, to reduce stomach aches related to painful periods; it would also be attributed beneficial aspects against ovarian cancer and ovarian cysts.

The disadvantages: the intake must be regular. At almost fixed times for maximum efficiency.

Some women complain of decreased libido or even vaginal dryness after taking the pill for more than 6 months.

Conditions: do not be head in the air and have done all the tests (HIV, Hepatitis, chlamydia ...)

Smoke less than a pack of cigarettes maximum per day and if possible practice a sport regularly.

The IUD also called IUD (Intra-Uterine Device)

Now known as an IUD, the IUD was once used only for primiparous women (who have already had at least one child).

Nowadays, IUDs have been adapted (2-3 smaller models have been marketed so as not to damage the uterus) and some gynecologists, still a minority today, agree to ask them to oviparous women: who have no never had a child.

The list of gynecologists applying the IUD to nulliparous women is available in family schedules.

This small "umbrella" in the shape of a cross is inserted through the cervix into the woman’s uterus by a health professional (doctor, gynecologist or midwife).

There are two types of IUDs: the hormone IUD and the hormone-free copper IUD. They are as effective as the other, their action is just different. While the first acts as a contraceptive pill and prevents fertilization of the egg by the sperm, the second acts downstream, fertilization is possible but the fertilized egg cannot remain in the uterus because of the copper filaments which make it unfavorable ground.

The advantages: once the IUD inserted, if the body does not reject it (some women do not support the IUD and their body rejects it - often between 1 to 3 months after the break), we are quiet for 3 to 10 years. function of the IUD. It will nevertheless be necessary to go regularly to your gynecologist to check the correct position of the latter (about a visit every 6 months is recommended).

The disadvantages: if you contract an STD, the risk of complications which goes to infertility is much higher for the simple reason that the thread that comes out of the cervix into the vagina is a thread that we can say driver of STD. Thus, if a person without an IUD contracts an STD, he will have time to see the symptoms settle in and consult an emergency.

On the contrary, the IUD allows the much faster spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections which have a direct path to the uterus and the fallopian tubes which can cause irreversible damage in the shortest possible time. Hence the name "IUD".

The conditions: to be able to put on an IUD, the main condition is to have a stable relationship where you have 100% confidence in your partner, for all the reasons mentioned above.

The contraceptive patch

The contraceptive patch is a kind of patch to stick on the skin. Like the estrogen-progestin pill, it contains synthetic progestin and estrogen and delivers them through the skin.

The advantages: unlike the pill which is taken every evening for 21 or 28 days, the patch sticks for 7 days. The risks of forgetting are thus reduced. In addition, it has the same advantages as the pill with regard to pain, acne and regularization of the menstrual cycle.

The disadvantages: they are identical to those of the pills but some women find in addition a lack of discretion: the patch is visible and can sometimes cause slight redness of the hives type. In the event of detachment, the replacement of a stamp can be a little expensive because the stamps are not sold individually. Its disposal poses environmental problems since the patch still contains hormones when it is discarded.

Conditions: Support estrogen and progestin.

The contraceptive implant

The implant is a small cylinder, the size of a match (4cm long by 2mm in diameter) slipped under the skin at the level of the internal face of the arm. Composed of progestin, it does not contain estrogen.

The advantages: it offers continuous protection for 3 years and only requires a medical visit 3 months after the break.

The disadvantages: some women may gain weight or have acne with the implant. In the first months after the break, he may interrupt or make your periods more irregular. Everything will stabilize after 6 months: some women will not have any periods at all, as long as others have less abundant losses than their natural cycle.

Conditions: The implant is only prescribed when other means of contraception have been ruled out. It is contraindicated in cases of phlebitis, severe liver disease, unexplained vaginal bleeding or pulmonary embolism.

The vaginal ring

The vaginal ring is a flexible, porous ring which is placed at the bottom of the vagina for 3 to 4 weeks and delivers estrogens and progestins. Weaker than the pill since the hormones go directly into the blood without passing through the digestive system, it can be removed after 3 weeks, in this case, "rules" appear the last week or kept for 4 consecutive weeks to no longer have any rules.

The advantages: it is in place for 1 whole cycle, so there is no need to think about it every night.

The disadvantages: like the pill, it can cause nausea, swelling of the breasts ... It cannot be used by women who do not support estrogens (risks of pulmonary embolism.

Conditions: the vaginal ring is only prescribed when other means of contraception have been ruled out.

The Diaphragm and the Cervical Cape

The diaphragm is a kind of small flexible silicone cap which is placed at the very bottom of the vagina to prevent access to the uterus to sperm. Most of the time, the diaphragm is used with spermicides for maximum efficiency.

The advantages: they are both reusable and can be put up to 2 hours before the report.

The disadvantages: they need to be well placed, must be kept at least 8 hours after intercourse and are a bit expensive ’as it is used with spermicides.

Conditions: They both need to be comfortable with his body to place them correctly.

The Male Condom

The male condom is a latex or polyisoprene protection which unrolls on the penis of the man and retains the sperm in a small tank at the end.

The advantages: inexpensive it is everywhere (pharmacies, supermarkets, internet ...), its implementation is simple and it sometimes allows to increase the pleasure (textured condoms or warming and shivering).

The disadvantages: it must be put on during the act: it cannot be put on before since it can only be placed on an erect penis and very slightly decreases the sensations, whatever the condoms of today do only a few microns thick.

Conditions: most condoms are made of latex, so make sure you are not allergic or choose a range of latex-free condoms (Skyn for example).

The female condom

Unlike the male condom, the female condom is latex free and is placed in the vagina until 8 hours before intercourse. It thus allows the sperm to never be in contact with the vaginal walls and the cervix.

The advantages: it can be placed well before the act and does not need the consent of the partner and is latex-free.

The disadvantages: it is not easy to put on and is a little unsightly.

Conditions: you need to be comfortable with your body to place it correctly.


In the form of eggs or gel, spermicides can inactivate or destroy sperm. Most of the time, they are used with a cervical cap or a diaphragm. Eggs like gel should be put before intercourse (10 minutes for eggs - just before gel) at the bottom of the vagina.

The advantages: they are discreet

The disadvantages: they are clearly less effective alone (without diaphragm or cervical cap), are not easy to use: an improperly placed spermicide ovum will lose all its effectiveness and they are expensive.

Conditions: do not use spermicides in case of vaginal lesions due to a smear or other vaginal examination.

Injectable progestins

This is the intramuscular injection of a synthetic progestin by a doctor every 3 months.

The advantages: apart from making a regular appointment with the doctor, our contraception is no longer a daily constraint.
The disadvantages: Once the dose of hormones has been injected, it is no longer possible to go back. We can only wait for them to disappear from the body.
The dose being substantial, it can cause undesirable effects: irregularity of the cycle or even stop of the rules, weight gain ...
Conditions: progestin-only injectables are contraindicated for breast or endometrial cancer, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, uterine fibroids and liver disease.
Natural Methods
Removal involves withdrawing from the vagina just before ejaculation.
The advantages: this method can be carried out by everyone regardless of the means available. It is better to use withdrawal than to do nothing at all.
The disadvantages: Sometimes the first drops of sperm are confused with the seminal fluid. The first drops being the ones that contain the most sperm, the woman is very likely to get pregnant.
Conditions: Control his ejaculation.
The Temperature Method
The temperature of the woman being a little higher during ovulation (+ 0.2 to 0.4 ° C), the temperature method consists in protecting oneself or not making love with penetration only around ovulation (days before and after ovulation.
The advantages: This method is theoretically simple and requires little material, if not a thermometer.
Cons: If you don’t anticipate ovulation and have sex a few days before, knowing that sperm can live up to 5 days, the woman is very likely to get pregnant.
Conditions: Have a regular cycle. Please note, this method is one of the least reliable methods.
The Ogino method
Named after the Japanese doctor who proposed it, the method consists in not making love with penetration on fertile days: days preceding or following ovulation.
The advantages: It can be realized by everyone whatever the means.
The disadvantages: Despite the regularity of a cycle, one cannot be 100% sure of her ovulation.
Conditions: Only for women whose cycle is regular. Be careful, this method is one of the least reliable methods.
The hormone level in the urine
On the same principle as pregnancy tests, the calculation of the hormone level in the urine is done with a small device (small on-board computer) and strips: every morning, first then more spaced, it is necessary to urinate on the small strip so that the computer can calculate the level of hormones in your urine.
Depending on the rate the day will be said to be green: ovulation does not take place, you can have sex or red: ovulation takes place, it is not recommended to have sex.
The advantages: Without hormones or foreign bodies this small on-board computer is rather reliable provided that you do not forget to urinate on the strip in the morning. It can be accessed by your partner using a code so that they know where you are.
The disadvantages: On so-called red days, you have to know how to do without penetration. The device is a bit expensive.
Conditions: Be regular in taking urine and do without penetration on fertile days.
Contraceptive targeting sterilization methods
Vasectomy for men, tubal ligation for women, since 2001, all adults have the right to use this contraception if they request it.
Before being able to practice it, it is necessary to have received complete information on the subject, and to allow the patient some time to reflect, this is why the practice of sterilization will take place 4 months after the 1st minimum consultation.
The doctor can refuse this intervention but will have the obligation to redirect the patient to another practitioner.
The advantages: no more contraception is necessary.
The disadvantages: No turning back is possible. From the moment the surgical procedure takes place, nothing can ever allow the patient to have children later.
Conditions: Be of legal age and have given your written agreement.
Are they all as reliable as each other?
All methods of contraception are reliable, but not all are used well. The reliability of a contraceptive method depends above all on its use, which is why it is necessary to know yourself and speak with your doctor. If a contraceptive method turns out not to be suitable, you should not hesitate to call your doctor to change it as soon as possible.
I forgot to protect myself, what should I do?
If you forget to protect yourself, or if you have misplaced protection, it is necessary to take as soon as possible what is called emergency contraception or sometimes the morning after pill.
This pill, which is in the form of a single tablet, can be taken up to 72 hours for the levonorgestrel tablet (3 days) or 120 hours for the ulipristal acetate tablet (= 5 days) after intercourse, whether bad or not. protected.
Its action is simple: it serves to delay ovulation.
The advantages: it is the ultimate solution not to get pregnant, it is without a prescription and reimbursed by social security.
The disadvantages: side effects can be strongly felt in some women (headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness ...).
Like all contraceptives in the form of tablets, if you vomit, you should take it naked as soon as possible.
Conditions: the majority of women can use this contraception without danger. There is no risk of infertility or risk of increased miscarriage.
The numbers to know
Family planning of Paris: 01 42 60 93 20
Bordeaux family planning: 05 56 44 00 04
Marseille Family Planning: 04 91 91 09 39
Family Planning of Villeurbanne: 04 78 89 50 61
Mulhouse Family Planning: 03 89 42 42 12
For all the family planning lists, go to
Information platforms
Alsace: 03 88 32 28 28 * in the morning / 03 89 42 42 12 * in the afternoon
Aquitaine: 0810 400 170 **
Auvergne: 04 73 75 01 62 *
Burgundy: 03 80 29 52 23 *
Brittany: 0800 800 648 **
Center: 0800 881 904 **
Champagne Ardenne: 0800 331 334 **
Corsica: 04 95 50 54 18
Franche-Comté: 0820 209 127 **
Ile-de-France: 01 47 00 18 66 * and 0800 803 803 **
Languedoc-Roussillon: 04 67 99 33 33 *
Lorraine: 0810 122 128 *** or 03 87 69 04 77 *
Midi-Pyrénées: 0800 80 10 70 *** or 05 61 77 50 77 *
Nord-Pas-de-Calais: 03 20 15 49 32
Lower Normandy: 0808 800 122 **
Haute-Normandie: 02 35 73 74 88 *
Pays-de-Loire: 0800 834 321 **
Picardy: 03 22 72 22 14 *
Poitou-Charentes: 05 49 44 48 31 *
Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur: 0800 105 105 **
Rhône-Alpes: 0810 810 714 ***
* cost of a call to a landline
**Free call from a landline
***Local call cost from a fixed post

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